Schoolverlaters tussen onderwijs en arbeidsmarkt 1999-2012, Voorbereidend Middelbaar BeroepsOnderwijs, Chapter 3
The report presents forecasts for the Dutch labour market until 2020. It discusses future developments in labour supply and demand by educational types and levels, and by occupation. In particular, the report focusses on a number of key indicators for bottlenecks in the labour market, and the future labour market prospects of graduates.
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This paper presents the Global Preference Survey, a globally representative dataset on
risk and time preferences, positive and negative reciprocity, altruism, and trust. We
collected these preference data as well as a rich set of covariates for 80,000 individuals,
drawn as representative samples from 76 countries around the world, representing 90
percent of both the world’s population and global income. The global distribution of
preferences exhibits substantial variation across countries, which is partly systematic:
certain preferences appear in combination, and follow distinct economic, institutional,
and geographic patterns. The heterogeneity in preferences across individuals is even
more pronounced and varies systematically with age, gender, and cognitive ability.
Around the world, our preference measures are predictive of a wide range of individual level
behaviors including savings and schooling decisions, labor market and health
choices, prosocial behaviors, and family structure. We also shed light on the cultural
origins of preference variation around the globe using data on language structure.
Using data from a stated preferences experiment in the Netherlands, we find that replacing full-time pension schemes with schemes that offer gradual retirement opportunities induce workers to retire one year later on average. Total life-time labour supply, however, decreases with 3.4 months because the positive effect of delayed retirement on labour supply is cancelled out by the reduction in working hours before full retirement. The impact of gradual retirement schemes is, however, heterogeneous across groups of workers. Workers with non-routine job tasks retire at a later age when they can gradually retire. Financial incentives, either in terms of changing pension income or the price of leisure, also affect the expected retirement age, but the impact of these financial incentives does not differ with the possibility of gradual retirement. Finally, we find that gradual retirement is not a preferred option among workers as the large majority still prefers full retirement. This especially holds for workers with a lower wage and those with higher life expectancy.
Together with the Dutch ministries of Education, Culture and Science, Social Affairs and Employment and Economic Affairs and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), ROA organizes the PIAAC International Conference 2015 on 23-24 November 2015 in Haarlem.
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This study examines the impact of three types of underemployment, i.e. level underemployment, content underemployment and contingent employment, on subsequent objective (i.e. salary) and subjective career success (i.e. job satisfaction) using a 10-year longitudinal dataset with 335 Dutch university graduates. Thanks to our longitudinal design, we were able to examine the impact of preceding underemployment and the specific timing of the underemployment in one’s career, in that way explicitly addressing the role of time in career success research. We tested our hypotheses through multilevel analyses. Level and contingent underemployment, but not content underemployment, were found to have a negative impact on future pay; whereas content employment, but not level or contingent underemployment, were found to affect job satisfaction five years later. In addition, for one type of underemployment (i.e., level underemployment), also the timing of the underemployment turned out to matter, indicating that the signal that level underemployment sends to employers may differ depending on when in one’s career it happens. Taken together, these findings point to the importance of using a path-dependency perspective when trying to understand people’s career success.