In this paper, we compare experience-earnings profiles of employees with vocational and general education background in Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, three countries with fundamentally different education systems. Using Mixed-Effects Linear Regression Models we show that earnings of vocationally educated employees are higher in the initial phase of their career. However, those with a general education background catch up over time in the labor market. Life-cycle differences in earnings are more pronounced in Germany than in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.
The report (in Dutch) summarizes the findings and developments in the ‘Metalektro’ sector (roughly NACE 27-29) in 2010. It is based on two large employer surveys in the sectors, and four short questionnaires. HRM managers of the companies are approached twice a year through e-mail to participate in web based questionnaire. About 200 companies participate by answering the questionnaire. The questionnaire contains core questions on employment, vacancies, and is extended by topics like training, social and product innovation, and HRM policies. In addition, four times a year a Quickscan is send to participating companies. It contains three topical statements in addition to five monitoring questions on recent and expected employment developments in the sector. Interviews with key HRM personnel are held on a regular basis to extend the project with qualitative information on recent trends and developments in the sector. These interviews are incorporated in the annual report.
In a knowledge economy much attention is devoted to the knowledge development and learning behavior of the workforce. Learning may involve attending formal courses, but also learning at the workplace. This informal learning involves learning by doing, but can also relate to the things people learn from colleagues or from the feedback of supervisors. An intensive learning process can lead to a greater accumulation of knowledge and skills and thus increase employability. With this report we document the formal and informal learning and knowledge development in the Netherlands on the basis of three waves of the ROA Lifelong Learning Survey (2004, 2007 and 2010). The monitor section of the survey is unchanged over the years. This allows for the description of trends in learning, and for an identification of the factors that promote or inhibit learning.
The main research question of this paper is the combined estimation of the effects of educational systems, school-composition and track-level on the educational achievement of 15-years-old students. We specifically focus on the effects of socioeconomic and ethnic background on achievement scores and to what extent these effects are affected by characteristics of the school, track or educational system these students are in. In doing so, we examine the ‘sorting’ mechanisms of schools and tracks in highly stratified, moderately stratified and comprehensive education systems. We use data from the 2006 PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) wave. Compared to previous research in this area the main contribution of this paper is that we explicitly include track-level and school-level as separate units of analyses, which leads to less biased results of the effects of characteristics of the educational system. The results highlight the importance of including track-level and school-level factors in the debate of educational inequality of opportunity for students in different education contexts. The findings clearly indicate that the effects of educational system characteristics are flawed if the analysis uses only a country and a student level and ignores the track- and school-level characteristics. Moreover the inclusion of the track-level is necessary to avoid overestimation of the school-composition effect, especially in stratified educational systems. From a policy perspective, the most important finding is that educational system are not uniformly ‘good’ or ‘bad’, but they have different consequences for different groups. Some groups are better off in comprehensive systems, while other groups are better off in moderately or highly stratified systems.
Retrenched pension rights affect motivated workers: Organisations within the public sector do not stimulate the continued labor force participation of their older workers. Older workers with retrenched pension rights due to a shock in the Dutch pension system receive less cognitive demanding tasks instead of that they are stimulated to remain active. This leads to that most older workers are dissatisfied with the HR-policy of their employer. Moreover, this study shows that the workers with retrenched pension rights make significantly less unpaid over hours. This especially holds for workers who are highly engaged to their job.
In order to increase the participation in lifelong learning, the Dutch Denktank Leren en Werken has proposed to launch a training voucher. This report – commissioned by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment – discusses various national and international training voucher pilot projects. From this inventory study as well as interviews with experts, we propose how a ‘development voucher’ system could be organized and introduced in the Netherlands. A good first step would be to introduce the voucher for low skilled workers in sectors where employment is falling.
Workers’ human capital is a crucial asset in a knowledge economy. However, a person’s human capital can depreciate fast, e.g. when skills are not used or underused, or when innovations in the production process result in demand for new skills. This report – commissioned by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation – deals with the evolution of a person’s human capital during the life course. The effect of unemployment and inactivity because of caring obligations receives particular attention.