This report investigates matching problems on the regional labour market for 40 different COROP regions in the Netherlands in 2008 at the level of secondary vocational education. As expected, we find a significant negative relationship between the unemployment and job vacancy rate. Furthermore, we find a significant negative relationship between the U/V curve and the match between education and the labour market. Compared to BOL students, BBL students are significantly more likely to qualify the match between their education and the labour market as “sufficient”. Furthermore, the education fields health care and behavioural and political sciences have a better score than the reference groups.
The report presents forecasts for the Dutch labour market until 2016. It discusses future developments in labour supply and demand by educational types and levels, and by occupation. In particular, the report focusses on a number of key indicators for bottlenecks in the labour market, and the future labour market prospects of graduates.
In this paper, we estimate tenure-performance profiles using unique panel data that contain detailed information on individual workers’performance. We find that 10 per cent increase in tenure leads to an increase in performance of 5.5 per cent of a standard deviation. This translates to an average performance increase of about 75 per cent within the first year of the employment relationship. Furthermore, we show that there are peer effects in learning on-the-job: Workers placed in teams with more experienced and thus more productive peers perform significantly better than those placed in teams with less experienced peers. An increase in the average team tenure by one standard deviation leads to an increase of 11 to 14 per cent of a standard deviation in performance.
Upon request of the Commission Associate Degree, ROA developed a brochure for institutes of higher vocational education to help them underpin the labour market relevance of Associate degrees.
As suggested by human capital theory, workers with flexible contracts participate less often in training than those with permanent contracts. We find that this is merely due to the fact that flexworkers receive less employer–funded training, a gap they can only partly compensate for by their own training investments. Flexworkers particularly participate less in firm–specific training that is meant to keep up with new skill demands than workers with permanent contracts. However, for those who participate in employer–funded firm–specific training, a temporary contract appears to facilitate the transition to a permanent contract with the same employer. However, this does not hold for participation in self–paid training. This training, which is usually general training, does not help in finding a better job.
We analyze the employment effect of a law that provides for a 36 percent increase in the generosity of disability insurance (DI) for claimants who are, as a result of their lack of skills and of the labour market conditions they face, deemed unlikely to find a job. The selection process for treatment is therefore conditional on having a low probability of employment, making evaluation of its effect intrinsically difficult. We exploit the fact that the benefit increase is only available to individuals aged 55 or older, estimating its impact using a regression discontinuity approach. Our first results indicate a large drop in employment for disabled individuals who receive the increase in the benefit. Testing for the linearity of covariates around the eligibility age threshold reveals that the age at which individuals start claiming DI is not continuous: the benefit increase appears to accelerate the entry rate of individuals aged 55 or over. We obtain new estimates excluding this group of claimants, and find that the policy decreases the employment probability by 8 percent. We conclude that the observed DI generosity elasticity of 0.22 on labour market participation is mostly due to income effects since benefit receipt is not work contingent in the system studied.
The share of flexible jobs on the Dutch labour market is among the highest in Western countries, in particular for recent graduates. In this study we examine why recent graduates enter into temporary contracts and whether flexible jobs match their qualifications worse than permanent jobs do. Graduates that enter into flexible jobs face large wage penalties, a worse job match and less training participation than those entering into permanent jobs, even after correcting for ability differences. When the labour market situation for a particular field of education deteriorates, a larger share of recent graduates is forced into flexible jobs, which may threaten their position on the labour market in the long run. Flexible work among graduates is unrelated to their willingness to take risks. Only for university graduates are there any indications that flexible jobs may provide stepping stones to permanent jobs.
This paper analyses the effects of work-related training on worker productivity. To identify the causal effects from training, we combine a field experiment that randomly assigns workers to treatment and control groups with panel data on individual worker performance before and after training. We find that participation in the training programme leads to a 10 percent increase in performance. Moreover, we provide experimental evidence for externalities from treated workers on their untreated teammates: An increase of 10 percentage points in the share of treated peers leads to a performance increase of 0.51 percent. We provide evidence that the estimated effects are causal and not the result of employee selection into and out of training. Furthermore, we find that the performance increase is not due to lower quality provided by the worker.
A huge cross-section literature, written by economists and others, argues that human well-being is U-shaped through the life cycle. In many cases this U-shape is robust (with as a well-known exception the pattern evident in some U.S. data sets if few independent variables are included). However, a lively debate is currently ongoing about its true shape. This paper discusses the identification problem of age, time, and cohort effects. It suggests a simple way to interpret estimates of age variables in a first-difference framework. Building on McKenzie’s (2006) methodology, the paper shows that no extra assumptions are needed in order to identify the second derivative of well-being to age, i.e. to estimate the changes in changes in the actual age and well-being relationship. An empirical application, using a large German data set, finds that human well-being is convex in age until after midlife, which is approximately consistent with a U-shaped pattern through life, and not with the concave relationship sometimes found in U.S. studies.